Most gym goers focus on beach muscles (pecs and biceps) not appreciating that shoulder is a complex joint. Also the focus in on just lifting the weight rather than focusing on functional movements, the way life is. (Pic Source:

Shoulder is a complex joint and so is its training schedule / program. Improve its strength and shape by working out optimum and with correct technique. 90% of the fitness freaks in the gym are noticed working out anterior and lateral muscles of shoulder, chest muscles, and biceps.

There is more to shoulder than just Pecs and Biceps. Very often upper back is completely ignored even by very regular gym goers. Pic Source: 

One needs to understand basic shoulder science. It is composed of anterior (front), lateral (outer-aspect) and posterior (back) group of muscles and it is equally important to strengthen the posterior (back) chain or the posterior muscles. According to the sports journal effective shoulder training needs an emphasis on Physiology and Biomechanics.

Cable weight machines works really well for functional exercises. It can become very sports specific as well whether it be golf, tennis, bowling in cricket or batting. 

Recent study published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine suggests that significant improvement in shoulder strength was noted for tennis players who trained using resistance bands and cable machine.

TRX kind of exercise-bands are not used enough. They are simply outstanding. Ritika, Sports-Exercise & Musculo-Skeletal Physiotherapist, demonstrates how to exercise with TRX.

The way exercises are done with free weights, resistance is applied only in vertical plane but resistance bands and cable machine helps you apply it over planes that are more functional.

Work same set of muscles with different variations of the same exercises and even different exercises. Internal & external rotations should be done while lying, sitting and standing maybe on different days for best results.

It has been found that the muscle that experiences more time under tension experiences a greater degree of protein synthesis, repair and muscle regrowth.